Blood | Types, Composition, Functions & More
Blood is the medium in which resolved nutrients, gasses, hormones and squanders are delivered all through the body. The clout (weight) of the blood is 1/12th of our body weight.
Components of Blood
It is equipped with two Components;
1.➥ Blood Plasma.
Inorganic ions or mineral ions
- A portion of the globulins, known as Immunoglobulins or antibodies are delivered in response to antigens, by lymphocytes; and over and above that, are passed to plasma and lymph.
- The proteins like prothrombin act as a catalyst in the blood coagulating process.
- Fibrinogen partakes in the blood clotting process.
- Immunoglobulins play a significant role in the body’s defenses against illnesses.
Cholesterol is a salient ingredient; it is metabolized to somewhat, but in addition, works as an antecedent of steroid hormones.
Nitrogenous waste products
1.➥ Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes).
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
- In embryonic conditions, they are made from liver and spleen.
- In matures, they are created in the red bone marrow of short bones, for example, sternum, ribs and vertebrae. The mature/adult red blood cells do not separate
Regarding 95% of cytoplasm in red blood cells (R.B.Cs) is the red pigment known as hemoglobin and the remaining 5% consists of enzymes, salts and other proteins.
The normal life period of R.B.Cs is 4 months (120 days), after which they break down in the liver and spleen and partially by phagocytes by phagocytosis.
“Around 2 – 10 million red blood cells are formed and ruined every second in normal man”.
Function of RBCs
The fundamental function of red blood cells is to transport O₂ and CO₂ to the body.
White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)
These are less than R.B.Cs one cubic millimeter blood contains 7000 to 8000 W.B.Cs. These are bigger than R.B.Cs.
- The leucocytes, which take over (possess) the lobed nucleus and granular cytoplasm. Their nucleus is specifically 2 to 4% lobed.
- These are composed in the red bone marrow.
- These comprise around 71 to 72% of absolute white blood cells.
Lymphocytes have a life span of months or even years, but this is contingent on the body’s need for these cells.
Eosinophils: Kill parasites break inflammatory substances.
Basophils: Prevent blood clotting.
Neutrophils: Destroy little particles by phagocytosis.
Lymphocytes: produce antibodies and finish germs.
Functions of WBCs
- Leucocytes protect the body against foreign invaders.
- Macrophages (monocytes) and neutrophils travel via vessels. They achieve the site of the injury where bacteria have attacked. Macrophages and neutrophils die during fighting with bacteria and accumulate as pus at the infection site.
- Basophils produce substance heparin, a substance that inhibits blood clotting.
- These likewise produce chemicals such as histamine, that take part in allergic reactions in response to tissue damage and microbial in the invasion.
- Lymphocytes help to create immunity against diseases.
- Platelets help in the transformation of soluble plasma protein fibrinogen into an insoluble structure, fibrin.
- The fibrin threads entangle red blood cells and different platelets in the area of damaged tissue and form a blood clot.
- The clot works as a temporary seal to stop bleeding from the injury until the damaged tissue can be repaired.
Function Of Blood
1. Maintaining of Osmotic Pressure
The plasma proteins maintain colloid osmotic pressure of the blood (75% by albumins, 25% by globulins and almost none by fibrinogen).
2. Transport of Material
Blood transports of materials, in the body including nutrients, water, salts, and waste products.
3. Transportation of Hormones
All hormones are transported by the blood from endocrine tissues to target cells.
4. Transportation of Gases
Blood helps in the transport/motion of respiratory gases i.e. O₂ & CO₂.
5. Defense of Body
Blood helps in body defenses against diseases.
6. Destruction of Micro-organisms
Neutrophils and monocytes engulf and destroy invading microorganisms and toxins of the invaders, e.g. bacteria.
7. Act as Buffer
Blood acts as a buffer to keep up the acid-base balance i.e. assiduousness of H⁺ and OH⁻ ions in the body.
9. Interferon & Antitoxins
10. Maintaining of Body Temperature
11. Exchange of Material
13. Blood Clotting
Comparison of Different Types of Blood Cells
(A) ➥ Red Blood cell (Erythrocytes)
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