Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System


Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (Heart)

Following are the major organs for the circulation of blood in the human body:

  • Heart
  • Aorta
  • Arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Veins
  • Venules
  • Capillaries

Heart: The heart is a conical hollow muscular organ, it is like a closed fist. It weighs almost 300 gm in males and 250 gm in females. It inclines more towards the left side. The heart lies in the thorax, behind the sternum, and between two lungs.

Coverings of the heart: Pericardium (a tough double-layered membrane that covers the heart, between them fluid is present to lubricate the heart so that it can moves freely).

  • Epicardium (Outer covering)
  • The myocardium (Middle muscular layer)
  • Endocardium (Inner layer)

Chambers of Heart: There are 4 chambers of the heart
Two-Atria (right and left atria)
Two-Ventricles (right and left ventricles)
Valves of Heart: The valves of the heart maintain the unidirectional flow of the blood.
There are four valves of the heart:

  • Atrioventricular Valves (AV-Valves)

1) Tricuspid valve (between the right atrium and right ventricle)
2) Bicuspid valve/Mitral valve (between the left atrium and left ventricle)

  • Semilunar Valves

3) Pulmonic Valve (between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery)
4) Aortic Valve (between the left ventricle and aorta)

Aorta: The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle to the heart and extended down to the abdomen or tummy where it splits into two small arteries. Aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all components or parts of the body.
Arteries: Blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Arterioles: Any of the tiny or small subdivisions of an artery. They connect arteries with capillaries.
Capillaries: These are diffuse networks of blood vessels that connect arterioles with the venules.
Venules: These are the blood vessels that connect capillaries with veins.
Veins: Blood vessels that move or carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart.

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